An abandoned meander

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Alluvium - A general term for detrital deposits made by stream processes on riverbeds, floodplains, and alluvial fans.

Bed Scarp (or nick point) - An abrupt change of grade in the bottom of a stream channel that moves progressively upstream; the change in grade forms a waterfall. 

Confluence - The act of flowing together; the meeting or junction of two or more streams; also, the place where these streams meet.

Hungry Water - Clear water minus its expected suspended sediment load, usually released from an impoundment that has excess energy, which erodes sediment from the downstream channel.

Oxbow - An abandoned meander in a river or stream caused by cutoff. Used to describe the U-shaped bend in the river or the land within such a bend of a river.

Secchi Depth - A relatively crude measurement of the turbidity (cloudiness) of surface water. The depth at which a Secchi disc can no longer be seen.

Weephole - Opening left in a revetment, bulkhead, or wall to allow groundwater drainage.